kake: The word "菜單" (Chinese for "menu") in various shades of purple. (菜單)
[personal profile] kake
Description follows.

[Image: Two small white saucers, one containing light soy sauce and the other containing dark soy sauce. The saucers have been tilted to show that the dark soy sauce is much more viscous.]

As I mentioned in last week's post on shiitake mushrooms, January is ingredient month! Each week this month I'll cover a different ingredient commonly used in Chinese cuisines, giving the different names you might find it under, suggesting some dishes that include the ingredient, and explaining any other background information that might be of interest.

Soy sauce is perhaps the most well-known of Chinese ingredients; here in the UK at least, you'd be hard-pressed to find someone who'd never tasted this salty dark brown sauce. However, although it's a common table condiment in Chinese restaurants here, its primary use in Chinese cuisines is not for the diner to season food before eating, but rather for the chef to season food during cooking. It's also used alone and with other seasonings to create dipping sauces, but sprinkling it over your food at the dinner table is not generally likely to actually improve flavours which have already been carefully balanced by the chef.

Another nuance sometimes overlooked is that there are different types of soy sauce, and these differ between countries too. Within Chinese soy sauces, the primary division is between light and dark soy sauce; light soy sauce[see footnote] is thinner, saltier, and lighter in colour, while dark soy sauce is thicker, blacker, and characterised by flavours reminiscent of molasses or caramel. Both are used in Chinese cooking; sometimes both in the same dish.

Soy sauce has a few different names in Chinese. 醬油 (jiàng yóu) and 豉油 (chǐ yóu) are terms for soy sauce in general ([blogspot.com profile] eatlovenoodles points out in comments that the former of these is more commonly used in Mandarin and the latter in Cantonese). Light soy sauce is 生抽 (shēng chōu) and dark soy sauce is 老抽 (lǎo chōu).

Good soy sauce has a highly complex flavour. According to Harold McGee's On Food and Cooking, it contains "several hundred aroma molecules" including "roasty compounds (furanones and pyrazines), sweet maltol, and a number of meaty sulfur compounds". Soy sauce production is a lengthy process involving various enzymes, yeasts, and bacteria. Even the final pasteurisation plays a role in creating flavour, with browning reactions occurring between the sugars and amino acids.

Here are some dishes in which soy sauce is indispensable:

漢字pinyinEnglish
醬牛肉jiàng niú ròusoy sauce braised beef
Beef braised with dark soy sauce and various spices, then chilled, sliced, and served as an appetiser. Su-Lin has a comprehensive post on jiang niu rou, including a recipe.
酸辣豆花suān là dòu huāhot-and-sour "flower" beancurd
Soy sauce is combined with ingredients such as chilli oil, Sichuan pepper, sesame oil, and Chinese black vinegar to create a savoury, fragrant dressing for a bowl of ultra-soft tofu.
皮蛋豆腐pí dàn dòu fubeancurd with century egg
Similar ingredients to the above, but a different balance and a very different result.
口水鷄kǒu shuǐ jīmouthwatering chicken
This is one of my favourite Chinese cold dishes. The name suggests that it's so delicious it will make your mouth water.
地三鮮dì sān xiānthree fresh things from the earth
Homely, comforting, and meat-free, this dish of deep-fried potato, aubergine, and green pepper is flavoured with light and dark soy sauce, garlic, spring onion, and a little sugar or sweet bean sauce.
鐵蛋tiě dàniron eggs
A specialty of Taiwan, "iron eggs" are hard-boiled chicken, duck, or quail eggs that are then shelled and simmered repeatedly in a spiced, soy-sauce-based broth until they turn shiny black and chewy. Su-Lin was kind enough to share some of hers with me last year; here's a photo. They look a little like black olives!

And here are some links to other people's posts about soy sauce:

Footnote: In the USA and possibly elsewhere, "light soy sauce" may be taken to mean "low-sodium soy sauce". In her book Cooking From China's Fujian Province, Jacqueline M Newman suggests "thin soy sauce" as an alternative term; I've not seen this in wider use, though.

Characters mentioned in this post:
If you have any questions or corrections, please leave a comment (here's how) and let me know (or email me at kake@earth.li). See my introductory post to the Chinese menu project for what these posts are all about.

Date: 2012-01-15 04:50 pm (UTC)
From: [identity profile] eatlovenoodles.blogspot.com
I can't believe you didn't mention (arguably) the most famous dish that has soy sauce as its key ingredient: 豉油鷄 soy sauce chicken. I'm making it tonight for tea! Chicken slowly cooked in soy infused with star anise and cinnamon, it's a beauty!

Incidentally, the term 醬油 is more commonly used in Mandarin while 豉油 is used more in Cantonese. And of the different types of soy, let's not forget mushroom dark soy 草菇老抽 made with essence of straw mushrooms.

PS: Good to see you blogging regularly again!

Date: 2012-01-17 04:52 pm (UTC)
From: [identity profile] eatlovenoodles.blogspot.com
I'm not sure to be honest! What I would say is that soy sauce chicken 豉油雞 (a Cantonese dish) is always called 豉油雞 whilst poached goose in master stock 滷水鵝 (a Chiu-Chow or Teochew dish) is always called 滷水鵝.

The only reason I can think of is that the poaching liquor used in soy sauce chicken 豉油雞 may have more soy in it than 'standard' 滷水? Expanding on that maybe 滷水 is taken to mean Chiu-Chow style master stock in the Cantonese language?

Date: 2012-01-15 07:36 pm (UTC)
tree: text: mathematics is my boyfriend ([else] <3 math)
From: [personal profile] tree
this is fascinating. i can't eat soy sauce because i'm allergic to, well, all of its ingredients. in australia, i expect the use of soy sauce as a table condiment came about because (a) it's salty and (b) at least historically, a lot of chinese food was made comparatively bland to appeal to palates used to british fare. even now it's not uncommon, particularly in country towns, to find the lone chinese restaurant serving fried rice that has peas and corn in it.

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