kake: The word "菜單" (Chinese for "menu") in various shades of purple. (菜單)
[personal profile] kake

Having covered meat and fish, it's time to turn to the other protein staple of the Chinese menu — tofu, or beancurd. The full name for beancurd is 豆腐 (dòu fu), which is made up of the character for "beans/legumes" (豆) charmingly combined with the character for "gone off/rotten" (腐). Needless to say, beancurd is not actually rotten, and it's not even fermented; it's a fresh product made by coagulating soya milk. Wikipedia suggests that 腐 can also be translated as "curdled", but I have no idea how accurate this is.

Translation of 腐 is much easier in the context of the Chinese menu. If you see 腐 on a menu, it simply means "beancurd" — it's a commonly accepted and widespread abbreviation for 豆腐.

Given that the pinyin for 豆 is dòu, readers of my post on 肉 (ròu) should be able to deduce that it's pronounced like "dough", with a falling (fourth) tone. 腐 is pronounced as "foo". On its own, it's spoken with the third tone (falling-then-rising), but when combined with 豆 to make 豆腐, 腐 is spoken with the "fifth tone" (also known as "neutral tone"); this basically means that the syllable is a toneless one. For more on the fifth tone, there are some useful hints from [personal profile] pulchritude in a previous comment thread.

Other words which use 豆:

máo dòu green soya beans (edamame) — literally "hairy bean"
土豆 tǔ dòu potato or peanut — literally "earth bean"
豆苗 dòu miáo pea shoots/pea sprouts/mangetout leaves
荷蘭豆 Hélán dòu mangetout (snow peas) — literally "Dutch bean" (may be abbreviated to 荷豆/hé dòu)
雪豆 xuě dòu another word for mangetout

Note that I've never seen 豆苗 used to refer to what we call "beansprouts" in English! A different "sprout" character (芽/yá) is used in that context — beansprouts are 銀芽 (yín yá, literally "silver sprouts"), 豆芽 (dòu yá), 大豆芽 (dà dòu yá), or 芽菜 (yá cài).

Approximate pronunciations (in my British accent): máo rhymes with "cow", tǔ is as "two", hé is as "her", lán rhymes with "man", miáo is as "meow" (one syllable, not two), yín rhymes with "in", yá and dà rhyme with "ah", and cài is like "sigh" but with "ts" instead of the "s".

xuě is a little trickier. The consonant, "x", is like the "ch" in German "ich" (at least, as taught in British schools) or a bit like a softer version of the "ch" in "loch". [personal profile] pne suggests that the vowel sound, "ue", is as if it was spelled uè in French, but my French isn't good enough to confirm this, so if yours isn't either, check out this YouTube video at the 3:50 point.

豆: dòu radical 151 (豆) Cantodict MandarinTools YellowBridge Zhongwen
腐: radical 130 (肉/⺼) Cantodict MandarinTools YellowBridge Zhongwen

If you have any questions or corrections, please leave a comment (here's how) and let me know (or email me at kake@earth.li). See my introductory post to the Chinese menu project for what these posts are all about.

Date: 2010-05-11 11:09 pm (UTC)
pulchritude: manuel neuer and benedikt höwedes holding each other (11)
From: [personal profile] pulchritude
I have actually never heard of the term 荷蘭豆 before! The term with which I'm familiar is 雪豆 :O

Date: 2010-05-12 02:41 pm (UTC)
pne: A picture of a plush toy, halfway between a duck and a platypus, with a green body and a yellow bill and feet. (Default)
From: [personal profile] pne
The first bit is like the "u" in French "lune" (or the "ü" in German "früh"), isn't it? So, perhaps something like "as if spelled in French"?

("Like ühe in German frühe" probably wouldn't work because the e is usually reduced to a shwa there, which is not true - as far as I know - for the Chinese sound in yue, xue.)

Date: 2010-05-12 05:20 pm (UTC)
pulchritude: (5)
From: [personal profile] pulchritude
I'm terrible with phonetics and trying to find approximate sounds (mainly because it's my first language, I think), so I'm afraid I can't offer much help. Good luck finding something! :3

Date: 2010-05-12 08:33 am (UTC)
pne: A picture of a plush toy, halfway between a duck and a platypus, with a green body and a yellow bill and feet. (Default)
From: [personal profile] pne
荷蘭豆 — hé lán dòu — mangetout (snow peas)

Literally "Dutch bean" (荷蘭 is a phonetic representation of "Holland", i.e. the Netherlands). (So a better transcription might be "Hélán dòu".)
Edited (Hélán) Date: 2010-05-12 08:34 am (UTC)

Date: 2010-05-12 08:53 am (UTC)
nanila: (kusanagi: puerile)
From: [personal profile] nanila
Oh boy. I'm never going to be able to eat edamame again without thinking "I'm eating hairy beans. Heh. Heheheh."

Date: 2010-05-17 03:47 pm (UTC)
From: (Anonymous)
The only thing I think I'd query here is the advice for pronouncing the sound transliterated as 'x' in pinyin; the "ch" sounds both as used in German and in the Scottish "loch" are, I think, produced way too far back in the throat to be a useful comparison. I think I would suggest to native English speakers to think more of the 'x' as half-way between an unvoiced 'th' (as in 'think') and 'sh'.

- ajva


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