One of the first characters I learned when I started teaching myself to read menus was 肉 (ròu in pinyin, pronounced to rhyme with "oh"). It basically means "meat" — and when the type of meat isn't specified, it almost always means pork.
In the context of the Chinese menu, the most important words including this character are:
牛肉 — niú ròu — beef
羊肉 — yáng ròu — lamb
There's also 豬肉 — zhū ròu — which is the explicit way to say "pork", but as mentioned above, the 豬 is usually left implicit
You don't need to worry too much about pronouncing things right at this stage, but if you're interested, the approximate pronunciations are nyoh roh, yang roh, and djoo roh.
Similarly, when you're just starting out with reading Chinese menus, don't worry too much if you have trouble remembering the tone marks. Just bear in mind that they do help determine the meaning of the word; for example, 豬/zhū (first tone) means pig, while 煮/zhǔ (third tone) means to cook, stew, or boil.
Having said that, here's what they mean in terms of pronunciation:
- the macron on the "ū" of "zhū" means you pronounce it with a high, sustained tone — this is the first tone
- the acute accent on the "ú" of "niú" and the "á" of "yáng" means you pronounce them with a rising (questioning) tone — this is the second tone
- the grave accent on the "ò" of "ròu" means you pronounce it with a falling tone — this is the fourth tone
Mandarin has four tones in all; the only one not represented above is the third tone, which is a falling-then-rising tone written with a caron; e.g. ǔ. (See Monday's post for links to a couple of YouTube videos covering tones.)
If you'd like to hear something of how these words sound when spoken, check out this video snippet covering "I like beef; I don't like chicken". Note that while 雞肉 (jī ròu) is used in the video to mean "chicken", on menus you'll often just see 雞 (jī), with the 肉 left implicit.
|肉:||ròu||radical 130 (肉/⺼)||Cantodict||MandarinTools||YellowBridge||Zhongwen|